Monkeypox: U.S. Outbreak 2022
Information last updated: 08-09-2022
Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by Monkeypox virus, an Orthopoxvirus. While the animal reservoir is unknown, small mammals (rope and sun squirrels, giant-pouched rats, African dormice) are thought to maintain the virus in the environments of West and Central Africa.
People can get infected with the virus through direct contact with infected animals, often while hunting, trapping, and processing infected animals or the infected body parts and fluids of animals. According to the CDC, it is possible that people who are infected can spread Monkeypox virus to animals through close contact, including petting, cuddling, hugging, kissing, licking, sharing sleeping areas, and sharing food.
What veterinarians need to know:
- The CDC reports the Monkeypox virus can infect a wide range of mammal species, including monkeys, anteaters, hedgehogs, prairie dogs, squirrels, and shrews.
- More studies are needed to determine which species of animals can get monkeypox, including livestock. While it is unknown if reptiles, amphibians, or birds can get monkeypox, it is unlikely since these animals have not been found to be infected with other orthopoxviruses.
- According to the CDC, there are no reports of sick people transmitting Monkeypox virus to animals at this time.
- CDC Information for Veterinarians
- For more information about the National Veterinary Accreditation Program (NVAP) or to access the required online Continuing Education Modules visit the USDA-APHIS website.
- For questions, please contact the USDA Accreditation Coordinator in Austin at 512-383-2400 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Summary of TBVME approved CE credit hours for USDA Accreditation Modules
Health Certificates/Certificates of Veterinary Inspection (CVI)
- Procedures for Issuing a Texas Certificate of Veterinary Inspection
- Ordering Information (electronic or paper)
- Texas Requirements for Entry of Livestock (Domestic and Exotic), Poultry and Ratites into the State and into Shows, Fairs, Exhibitions, and Assemblies
- Interstate Requirements
Animal Disease Traceability
Animal disease traceability (ADT) or knowing where diseased and at-risk animals are, where they've been, and when is important to ensuring a rapid response when animal disease events take place. Official identification and movement documentation is an essential part of tracing livestock when disease is found.
For years, veterinarians practicing regulatory work have used metal NUES tags and metal brucellosis calfhood vaccination tags. As the cattle industry progresses so does the technology used in routine operations.
Learn more about utilizing electronic identification in a veterinary practice below.
TAHC Official Test Documents
Piro Test Chart(s) & Information
- Instructions for Completing Piro Test Chart
- Piro Test Chart — Manual Completion (Downloadable form)
- Piro Test Chart — Digital Photo Import (Downloadable form; must be completed using free Adobe Reader software)
Cattle Trichomoniasis Forms & Information
- Official Bovine Trichomoniasis Testing at TVMDL
- Trichomoniasis Test Record
- Instructions for Completing the Texas Trichomoniasis Test Record
- Tritrichomonas foetus Direct PCR Submission Guidelines
- Breeder's Certificate of Virgin Status
- Trich Consult - A website designed to aid veterinarians and producers in creating Trich control, prevention and eradication strategies.
Swine Test Documents
- Resources for USDA Program Diseases
- Veterinarian Quick Guide to African Swine Fever
- Foreign Animal Diseases of Interest to Accredited Veterinarians
- National Veterinary Accreditation Reference Guide
- Equine Disease Communication Center
- Reportable Diseases
- Haemaphysalis Longicornis Tick ID and Information
Testing Services and Submissions
To learn more about Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) testing selections, sample collection, submission, turnaround times, and the TVMDL locations that offer each test, visit the TVDML website.
For more information about TVMDL's testing services, visit the TVMDL website or call the agency's headquarters in College Station at 1-888-646-5623.
- Order Tuberculin: Please submit a completed VS Form 4-9, preferably by email, to NVSL. To order different size vials, please complete and submit
the Supplemental Tuberculin Product Reagent Request Form along with the VS Form 4-9.
- Tuberculin comes in 1ml, 5ml, and 10ml vials. Veterinarians are encouraged to order enough tuberculin for 3 months of testing. Additionally, veterinarians should order tuberculin at least 2 weeks in advance to make sure they receive it in time for their testing.
- Fees: NVSL does not charge for tuberculin used in disease programs. Please contact NVSL if you need tuberculin for research or for zoos
- The TAHC no longer provides shipping materials, 40-count boxes, mailers, blood tubes, and tick collection kits to private practitioners. Contact information for other regulatory resources for accredited/authorized veterinarians; e.g., Brucellosis tags and test charts:
- Poultry Sample Submissions for Non-Routine Diagnostic Avian Influenza Testing: Packaging Samples
- Tick and Fly Larvae Submissions: It is important to confirm that ticks are not cattle fever ticks and fly larvae are not New World screwworms. Veterinarians suspecting an animal may be infested with these troublesome pests are encouraged to call TAHC at 1-800-550-8242 or contact their TAHC Region Office.