Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

2022-2024 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Current HPAI Background

  • The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) confirmed several findings of the presence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in wild waterfowl in the Atlantic flyways in January 2022. On February 8, 2022 APHIS confirmed H5N1 HPAI in a commercial turkey flock in Dubois County, Indiana. Since then it has been confirmed in multiple states and flock types.
  • The first case of H5N1 in Texas was confirmed on April 2, 2022.
  • According to the CDC, Recent Bird Flu Infections in U.S. Wild Birds and Poultry Pose a Low Risk to the Public.
  • Federal and State partners work jointly on additional surveillance and testing in and nearby affected areas, following existing avian influenza response plans.
  • The United States has the strongest AI surveillance program in the world, and USDA is working with its partners to actively look for the disease in poultry operations, live bird markets, and in migratory wild bird populations.
  • Commercial poultry producers and backyard flock owners should continue to practice strict biosecurity; most importantly, prevent birds from exposure to wild waterfowl.
  • On March 25, USDA APHIS and the Texas Animal Health Commission confirmed the presence of HPAI in two Texas and two Kansas dairies. This marks the first cases of HPAI in dairy cattle in the United States. Learn more about these detections and the current situation in the HPAI and Dairy Cattle section below.

Disease Information

Avian Influenza (AI) is a flu virus that may cause illness in domestic poultry, fowl and birds. Migratory waterfowl are a natural reservoir for this disease.

There are many strains of the AI virus. Based on the severity of illness caused by the virus, these strains are put into two classifications, low pathogenic (LPAI) and highly pathogenic (HPAI). LPAI causes only minor illness and occurs naturally in migratory waterfowl. HPAI spreads rapidly and has a high death rate in birds.

Positive Cases of HPAI in Texas

& Flock #
Date Confirmed
Type of
Flock Inventory Status
Parmer 01 4/2/2024* Commercial chicken flock (poultry) 1,894,101 Under Quarantine
Deaf Smith 01 3/21/2024* Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 15 Under Quarantine
Moore 01 3/11/2024 Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 246 Under Quarantine
Carson 01 12/29/2023 Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 27 Under Quarantine
Grimes 01 11/20/2023 Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 45 Released
Ellis 01 11/14/2023* Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 72 Under Quarantine
Hale 01 3/24/2023* Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 20 Released
Lampasas 01 1/18/2023* Backyard, non-commercial flock (poultry) 248 Released
Denton 01 12/3/2022* Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 105 Released
Rockwall 01 10/19/2022* Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 46 Released
Dallas 01 9/24/2022* Backyard, non-commercial flock (non-poultry) 230 Released
Erath 01 4/2/2022* Commercial pheasant flock (poultry) 1,649 Released

*Confirmed positive by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL).

Current Statewide Situation

12 = Total affected premises
12 = Total affected counties

Wild bird information may be found on the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Website or the USDA website.


  • Poultry: All birds reared or kept in captivity to produce any commercial animal products or for breeding for this purpose, fighting cocks used for any purpose, and all birds used for restocking supplies of game or for breeding for this purpose, until they are released from captivity.
  • Non-Poultry: Birds that are kept in a single household, the products of which are used within the same household exclusively, are not considered poultry, if they have no direct or indirect contact with poultry or poultry facilities.

Press Releases

March 15, 2024: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Detected in Moore County Birds

November 16, 2023: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Detected in Ellis County Birds

September 26, 2022: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Detected in Dallas County Birds

April 3, 2022: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Detected in Pheasants in Texas

March 11, 2022: TAHC Recommends Enhanced Poultry Biosecurity as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Continues to Impact the United States

Report Sick and Dead Poultry

Report Dead Poultry: 1-800-550-8242

Report Dead Wild Birds: Contact your TPWD Wildlife Biologist


What can bird owners do to protect their flocks? By practicing biosecurity, you can help reduce the chances of your birds being exposed to animal diseases such as AI.

  • Eliminate opportunities for your birds to interact with wild birds. We know that wild waterfowl are carriers of disease. The best way to avoid diseases that wildlife carry is to keep domestic animals separated from the wild.
  • If you have birds at home, do not visit another farm, home or facility that also has birds. If you must visit another premises, be sure to shower and put on clean clothes and shoes beforehand.
  • Remember that vehicles can be vehicles for disease transmission. Before you drive down the road, consider where you are going. Will you be heading to the fair, another farm or a live bird market? If the answer is yes, be sure your vehicle is clean and free of dirt, manure and other organic material.
  • Early detection can help prevent the spread of disease. Knowing the signs to look for and monitoring the health of your birds on a regular basis is very important. Some signs to look for include nasal discharge, unusually quiet birds, decreased food and water consumption, drop in egg production, and increased/unusual death loss in your flock.
  • Report sick and dead birds immediately. If your birds appear sick or you have experienced increased mortality, immediately call your private veterinarian or your TAHC region office.

HPAI and Dairy Cattle

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5N1 virus is an emerging disease in cattle and was confirmed in Texas and other states in March 2024. Federal and state agencies work jointly to conduct testing, safeguard the health of the herds and protect the industry, keep our milk and beef supply safe, and protect public health and human safety based on the most up to date information available.

The National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) has confirmed that the strain of the virus currently found in dairy cattle is very similar to the strain that appears to have been introduced by wild birds (H5N1, Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong clade Initial testing has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans. While cases among humans in direct contact with infected animals are possible, this indicates that the current risk to the public remains low.

Find the latest updates and recommendations related to HPAI in dairy cattle on the USDA HPAI Detections in Livestock webpage.

Dairy Cattle Movement

The United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) issued a federal order, effective April 29, 2024, requiring lactating dairy cattle to receive a negative test for Influenza A virus at an approved National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) laboratory, prior to interstate movement. Additional guidance and resources related to this order are available on the USDA website and below.

HPAI in Dairy Cattle News